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In-Vitro Anticancer Efficacy of Kenyan Ruellia prostrata (Acanthaceae) Against Breast, Prostrate and Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines

Author: Wangia C. O. , Kibet Ngetich , Kipyegon Cheruiyot and Guantai E.
Is Part Of: Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya, Volume 24, No. 1 (2019)
Abstract:
Background: According to the World Health Organization, cancer is currently a global health problem and is projected to increase devastatingly by 70% in the next two decades. Reported toxicity and high economic burden of current conventional drugs has prompted research into evaluation of medicinal plants as alternative options in the management of cancer.
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate in-vitro anticancer properties of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Ruellia prostrata against breast, prostate and human hepatocellular carcinoma, vis a vis Vero (normal) cell line using the 3- (4, 5- dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT). Cell proliferation assay was used to evaluate the antiproliferative potential for whole plant parts of R. prostrata.
Methods: The experiment was done in duplicate and data analyzed by miniTab software version 17.0 and Microsoft Excel-2010. It was noted that R. prostrata possesses anticancer activity in both methanolic and aqueous extracts which were not statistically significant (p>0.05). The methanolic extract showed the lowest proliferation against 4T1 (breast cancer cell line) with IC50 value of 17.36 μg/mL, while the highest proliferation rate was generally observed in Vero (normal) cell line with IC50 of 426.32 μg/mL. Prostate cancer (22RV1) and HCC cell lines (hepatocellular carcinoma) showed higher proliferation with IC50 values of 228.75 and 168.60 μg/ml respectively. Aqueous extract on the other hand demonstrated lower anticancer activity compared to the methanolic extract, with IC50 values of 393.67μg/mL, 2691.32μg/mL, 669000μg/mL, 107.94μg/mL, and 45.79μg/mL against 4T1, DU145, HCC, 22RV1 and Vero cell lines respectively.
Results and Discussion: In Conclusion, it was noted that the methanolic extracts of Ruellia prostrata had the highest activity against breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines. The activity observed could be related to the presence of identified phytochemicals. To the best of our knowledge we report anticancer potential of R. prostrata for the first time. Therefore, extracts of R. prostrata can be developed further as alternative options for management of cancers of the breast, prostate, and the liver.

Keywords: Cancer cell lines, Anticancer, Extracts, Proliferation, Phytochemicals
Publisher: The Pharmaceutical Society of Kenya
ISSN: 2411-6386
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