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Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya, Volume 21, No. 4 (2014)

Volume: 21, No. 4 (2014)
Publisher: The Pharmaceutical Society of Kenya
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Articles in the journal

Editorial: Health Systems Research

Author: Orwa J.A.

Dispensing Practices at Mbagathi District Hospital

Author: Mugiira M. K, Orwa J. A, Namasaka, M.P.
Keywords: Dispensing practices, Mbagathi District Hospital, Irrational drug utilization
Inappropriate use of drugs is a major public health concern of present day pharmaceutical practice. It is associated with several consequences all leading to decreased quality of health care to the population. This study was to establish the dispensing practices in Mbagathi District Hospital. The study was a Cross-sectional study carried out at the outpatient pharmacy. Using simple random sampling,  records were reviewed retrospectively and prospective interviews done to dispensing staff and patients using a semi-structured questionnaire. Average dispensing time was 61(CI 52.2-69.8) seconds per patient. The hospital was able to dispense 68 % (CI 61.7-73.2) of the prescribed drugs. Ninety five percent (CI89%-98%) of the dispensed drugs were adequately labeled and 92% (CI 85%-96%) of the patients correctly described the dosage of the drugs. The pharmacy had 80% (CI 52%-96%) of the key drugs used to treat common ailments during
the study period. This study provides a baseline from which intervention programmes could be designed to improve dispensing practices in the hospital.


Author: Muniafu MM, Kipkore KW, Maima AO, Kwena MO, Kahindi JHP
Keywords: Giriama, Ethno-medicine, Deinbollia, Clerodendrum, Gardenia, herbal remedies, sustainability
Background: Though the Giriama people of Kenya rely mostly on ethno-medicine to manage human ailments, theindigenous knowledge  largely undocumented. This study was set to survey, record and report some of the medicinal plant species they use to manage human
ailments. The Main Objective of this study was to identify some of the indigenous medicinal plants used amongst the Giriama community of Kenya. Methodoloy: Observationsand semi-structured interviews (see Appendix 1) were usedto gather ethno-botanical data for each  plant. About 3 Kg of suitable specimens were harvested, with leaves pressed and preserved for identification at SUDIC Herbarium. Voucher specimens were also deposited at SUDIC and excess material powdered and kept dry. The pressed specimens were dried at 200 C to 250 C using plant blower. Results: A total of 23 medicinal plants, belonging to 15 families, were harvested and identified. The families Lamiaceae, Malvaceae and Fabaceae were the most represented. The medicinal use of three of the plant species (Deinbollia borbonica  Scheff., Clerodendrum incisum Klotzsch and Gardenia posoquerioides S. Moore) had hitherto not been documented and may be new records for treating various ailments. Conclusion and Suggestions: It is apparent that the Giriama of Basi are well endowed with knowledge on indigenous ethno-medicine and forest contours. Their passion and protection of the Kayas and medicinal plants help them in contributing not only to sustainable provision of community health care but also a potential to share this knowledge far beyond their Kilifi County. If nurtured well, this knowledge could empower the people economically. It could also be incorporated into key policies to guide conservation efforts for the rainforest and its biodiversity, to stave off over-utilization and loss of plant genetic reservoir. The ethno-medicinal knowledge needs to be well researched and recorded before it is irretrievably lost.

Health Care Delivery and Management in Kenya: A Review from the Public Health Perspective

Author: Sadia C.


Author: Ngongo D.N., Kimotho J.H., Ochwoto M.
Introduction: Microbial Culture and Sensitivity is still the gold standard procedure for diagnosis of infectious diseases and, in certain cases, the only method that can be reliably used for the diagnosis of these diseases. Although there is a gradual shift towards molecular diagnosis in developed countries, it will take longer for this to happen in the developing countries. Ready-to-Use (RTU) culture media can be imported from developed countries but they have short shelf lives. Objective: To find out the need to develop local capacity to sustainably produce quality-assured and cost effective culture media. Methodology: Market research was conducted, using a questionnaire to survey and collect data from regional public health facilities. Random Sampling method was employed in selecting the health facilities visited, 71 of them in total. The questionnaires were filled on spot by respondents and some information gathered by observation. The collated primary data was hence entered in Ms Excel and analyzed by SPSS. Results: A good majority of the respondents (83.6%) indicated they regularly make their own culture media. Most consider ‘High Quality Media’ as the most important factor
when choosing culture media. Conclusion and Recommendation: Formulation of viable, affordable and sustainable products that will serve the large market in Kenya and Eastern Africa in general. It is advisable to establish an integrated working committee to facilitate the
effective planning and implementation of this project(s).

Pharmaceutical Operational Excellence: A suitable concept for Kenya?

Author: Friedli, T., Lembke, N., Bellm, D.

The Victorian Pharmacy Authority scope of inspection posted on the web in its circular dated 24 October 2013

Author: Stephen M.