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Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya, Volume 24, No. 2 (2020)

Volume: 24, No. 2 (2020)
ISSN: 2411-6386;
Publisher: The Pharmaceutical Society of Kenya
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Articles in the journal

Editorial: Understanding Parkinsons

Author: Maroo H., Reeve M., Kambua D., Achei B., Ongeri J., Onyango E., Alex K., Kipchirchir K., Hakeem K., Oyuer L., Dr. Muthini P. and Kraft T.K.
Keywords: Parkinsons Disease

A feasibility study on the use of mobile phone technology in HIV/AIDS health care in Nairobi County

Author: Sammerion N.
Keywords: mHealth, application, HIV/AIDS, Adverse drug reaction, knowledge, technology, mobile
Technology that involves use of mobile phones is defined as the practice of medical and public health via mobile communication devices. Many mobile phone health applications have been innovated and a range has been recognized by the government in providing healthcare. The problem however is lack of the use and availability of an efficient mobile phone tool to enhance healthcare for persons living with HIV/AIDS. The objectives of the study were to innovate a mobile phone application that can be used by HIV/AIDS positive persons, to determine patient knowledge of HIV/AIDS, to determine factors that can be monitored using mobile phones and the challenges facing use of mobile phone in the healthcare of people living with HIV/AIDS. The main limitations currently against this system are still lack of access by some patients to smart phones and the issue of stigma. Methodology used was a descriptive cross sectional research design. Quantitative data collection using a structured questionnaire was used and also a laptop for making and uploading the application to respondents mobile phones on their approval. Sampling using the Cochrane formula was done at the Kenyatta University VCT center for one week between 2/7/18 to 7/7/18 and the sample size was 104. The application was successfully made using android studio software. Patient knowledge indicated that some patients still did not know their medication by name (40%); adverse drug reactions and opportunistic infections were not reported immediately (80%) correlating to similar studies carried out in Kiambu county hospital in 2011. The biggest challenge was lack of any application or mHealth program to use. Attitude to the invented app was positive as 73% accepted its installation. From the study, use of mobile phones in improving healthcare is a feasible way that can help improve healthcare.

Monitoring of microbial quality of purified water used in pharmaceutical production of non-sterile products: A case study of Elys Chemical Industries Limited, Kenya

Author: Vugigi S.K. 1*, Mshila C.N. 2, Mutisya F., Njeru E.3, Mulandi F.4 and Muyondo J.A.K.5
Keywords: Microbial, monitoring, pharmaceutical, purification, water.
Water is used in pharmaceutical production as an ingredient and also in cleaning of equipment making it a potential source of product contamination. Risks of microbial contamination can arise due to poorly designed water purification systems and inadequate sanitization procedures. Monitoring of water systems is vital for ensuring robustness of the purification process. The aim of this study was to monitor microbial quality of purified water used in pharmaceutical production at Elys Chemical Industries Ltd. Kenya. Water samples were collected from the water purification system twice-weekly for one year, from January to December 2018 and tested using pour plate method to determine total viable aerobic microbial count. A total of 2,376 water samples were tested. All samples were found to be free from Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and with total viable count of less than 100 colony forming units per ml as specified in the acceptance criteria.

Parkinson’s disease medication in Kenya – Situation analysis

Author: Fothergill Misbah N.1, Maroo H.2, Hooker J. 3 Kwasa J. 4, Walker R.1
Keywords: arkinson’s disease, medication, availability, affordability, Kenya.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurological disorder that currently affects 1% of the global population aged over 60 years (Tysnes and Storstein, 2017). The global prevalence of PD has more than doubled from 1990 to 2016, increasing from 2.5 million to 6.1 million people with PD (PWPD) (Dorsey et al., 2018). This large increase is mainly due to increased life expectancy leading to ageing populations. As populations continue to age, we can expect to see over 12 million people living with PD globally by 2050 (Rocca, 2018).
PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disease globally and has a range of motor and non-motor symptoms (Connolly, 2014). According to the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 (Dorsey et al., 2018), PD was the fastest growing neurological disorder globally in terms of prevalence, disability and deaths. Symptomatic drug therapy can be used to improve the motor symptoms of PD but cannot prevent progression of the disease or reverse it. The rate of progression is variable and use of drug therapy, as well as exercise, physiotherapy, speech therapy and occupational therapy are key in the management of symptoms (NICE, 2017). The aetiology of PD is not known, although age is the most important risk factor. Genetic factors, such as mutations in parkin or LRRK2 genes in familial PD (Chen and Tsai, 2010), and environmental factors, including industrial chemicals such as pesticides (Dorsey et al., 2018) are also thought to increase the risk of PD.